dPGS regulates the phenotype of macrophages via metabolic switching
H. Wu, S. Reimann, S. Siddiqui, R. Haag, B. Siegmund, J. Dernedde, R. Glauben – 2019
The synthetic compound dendritic polyglycerol sulfate (dPGS) is a pleiotropic acting molecule but shows a high binding affinity to immunological active molecules as L‐/P‐selectin or complement proteins leading to well described anti‐inflammatory properties in various mouse models. In order to make a comprehensive evaluation of the direct effect on the innate immune system, macrophage polarization is analyzed in the presence of dPGS on a phenotypic but also metabolic level. dPGS administered macrophages show a significant increase of MCP1 production paralleled by a reduction of IL‐10 secretion. Metabolic analysis reveals that dPGS could potently enhance the glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in M0 macrophages as well as decrease the mitochondrial respiration of M2 macrophages. In summary the data indicate that dPGS polarizes macrophages into a pro‐inflammatory phenotype in a metabolic pathway‐dependent manner.