Designing Structural Motifs for Clickamers: Exploiting the 1,2,3-Triazole Moiety to Generate Conformationally Restricted Molecular Architectures.
D. Zornik, R. M. Meudtner, T. El Malah, C. M. Thiele, S. Hecht – 2011
Noncovalent interactions, especially hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as electrostatic forces, confined within one macromolecule are the key to designing foldamers that adopt well-defined conformations in solution. In the context of significant recent activities in the area of triazole-connected foldamers, so-called clickamers, we present a fundamental study that compares various model compounds that bear adjacent N-, O-, or F-heteroatom substituents. The interplay of attractive and repulsive interactions leads to rotational constraints around the single bonds attached to both the 1- and 4-positions of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety and should therefore be able to induce well-defined conformational preferences in higher oligomers and polymers, that is, foldamers. Various compounds were synthesized and characterized with regard to their preferred conformations in all three aggregation states—that is, in the gas phase, in solution as well as in the solid state—by employing DFT calculations, NMR spectroscopic experiments, and X-ray crystallography, respectively. On the basis of the thus-obtained general understanding of the conformational behavior of the individual connection motifs, heterostructures were prepared from different motifs without affecting their distinct folding characteristics. Therefore, this work provides a kind of foldamer construction kit, which should enable the design of various clickamers with specific shape and incorporated functionality.