Membrane-Mediated Induction and Sorting of K-Ras Microdomain Signaling Platforms
K. Weise, S. Kapor, C. Denter, J. Nikolaus, N. Opitz, S. Koch, G. Triola, A. Herrmann, H. Waldmann, R. Winter – 2011
The K-Ras4B GTPase is a major oncoprotein whose sig-naling activity depends on its correct localization to negatively charged subcellular membranes and nanoclustering in membrane microdomains. Selective localization and clustering are mediated by the polybasic farnesylated C-terminus of K-Ras4B, but the mechanisms and molecular determinants involved are largely unknown. In a combined chemical biological and biophysical approach we investigated the partitioning of semisynthetic fully functional lipidated K-Ras4B proteins into heterogeneous anionic model membranes and membranes composed of viral lipid extracts. Independent of GDP/GTP-loading, K-Ras4B is preferentially localized in liquid-disordered (ld) lipid domains and forms new protein-containing fluid domains that are recruiting multivalent acidic lipids by an effective, electrostatic lipid sorting mechanism. In addition, GDP-GTP exchange and, thereby, Ras activation results in a higher concentration of activated K-Ras4B in the nanoscale signaling platforms. Conversely, palmitoylated and farnesylated N-Ras proteins partition into the ld phase and concentrate at the ld/lo phase boundary of heterogeneous membranes. Next to the lipid anchor system, the results reveal an involvement of the G-domain in the membrane interaction process by determining minor but yet significant structural reorientations of the GDP/GTP-K-Ras4B proteins at lipid interfaces. A molecular mechanism for isoform-specific Ras signaling from separate membrane microdomains is postulated from the results of this study.