Design of S-Allylcysteine in Situ Production and Incorporation Based on a Novel Pyrrolysyl-tRNA Synthetase Variant
M.P. Exner, T. Kuenzl, T.M.T. To, Z. Ouyang, S. Schwagerus, M.G. Hoesl, C.P.R. Hackenberger, M.C. Lensen, S. Panke, N. Budisa – 2017
The noncanonical amino acid S-allyl cysteine (Sac) is one of the major compounds of garlic extract and exhibits a range of biological activities. It is also a small bioorthogonal alkene tag capable of undergoing controlled chemical modifications, such as photoinduced thiol-ene coupling or Pd-mediated deprotection. Its small size guarantees minimal interference with protein structure and function. Here, we report a simple protocol efficiently to couple in-situ semisynthetic biosynthesis of Sac and its incorporation into proteins in response to amber (UAG) stop codons. We exploited the exceptional malleability of pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and evolved an S-allylcysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (SacRS) capable of specifically accepting the small, polar amino acid instead of its long and bulky aliphatic natural substrate. We succeeded in generating a novel and inexpensive strategy for the incorporation of a functionally versatile amino acid. This will help in the conversion of orthogonal translation from a standard technique in academic research to industrial biotechnology.