We prepared statistical copolymers composed of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOx) in combination with 2-butenyl-2-oxazoline (BuOx) or 2-decenyl-2-oxazoline (DecOx) as a basis for polymer analogous introduction of 1,2-aminothiol moieties at the side chain. MeOx provides hydrophilicity as well as cyto- and hemocompatibility, whereas the alkene groups of BuOx and DecOx serve for functionalization with a thiofunctional thiazolidine by UV-mediated thiol–ene reaction. After deprotection the cysteine content in functionalized poly(2-oxazoline) (POx) is quantified by NMR and a modified trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The luminescent cell viability assay shows no negative influence of cysteine-functionalized POx (cys-POx) concerning cell viability and cell number. cys-POx was used for multiple chemically orthogonal couplings with thioester-terminated peptides through native chemical ligation (NCL), which was performed and confirmed by NMR and MALDI-ToF measurements.