A supramolecular carbohydrate-functionalized two-dimensional (2D) surface was designed and synthesized by decorating thermally reduced graphene sheets with multivalent sugar ligands. The formation of host–guest inclusions on the carbon surface provides a versatile strategy, not only to increase the intrinsic water solubility of graphene-based materials, but more importantly to let the desired biofunctional binding groups bind to the surface. Combining the vital recognition role of carbohydrates and the unique 2D large flexible surface area of the graphene sheets, the addition of multivalent sugar ligands makes the resulting carbon material an excellent platform for selectively wrapping and agglutinating Escherichia coli (E. coli). By taking advantage of the responsive property of supramolecular interactions, the captured bacteria can then be partially released by adding a competitive guest. Compared to previously reported scaffolds, the unique thermal IR-absorption properties of graphene derivatives provide a facile method to kill the captured bacteria by IR-laser irradiation of the captured graphene–sugar–E. coli complex.